Matthew 2:1

Τοῦ δὲ Ἰησοῦ γεννηθέντος ἐν Βηθλέεμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρῴδου τοῦ βασιλέως, ἰδοὺ, μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς Ἰερουσαλὴμ

Now after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem,

Matt 2:1 [Textus Receptus (Elzevir) (1624)]
Τοῦ δὲ Ἰησοῦ γεννηθέντος ἐν Βηθλέεμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας, ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρῴδου τοῦ βασιλέως, ἰδού, μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα,

MSS: 1, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 18, 33, 46, 57, 113, 116, 127, 157, 182, 200, 438, 449, 490, 543, 556, 688, 652c, 892, 1203, 1582, 2561, 2603 (f5v|14)

Matt 2:1 [Codex Sinaiticus (א or 01) (4th century)]
Του δε IY γεννηθεντος εν βηθλεεμʼ της Ἰουδαιας εν ημερες ηρωδου του βασιλεως ϊδου μάγοι απο ανατολων παρεγενοντο ις Ἱεροσολυμα

Matt 2:1 [Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209 (B03) (4th century)]
Tου δε IY γεννηθεντος εν βηθλεεμ της ϊουδαιας εν ημεραις ηρωδου του βασιλεως ιδου μαγοι απο ανατολω- παρεγενοντο εις ιεροσολυμα

Matt 2:1 [Codex Ephraemi Syri Rescriptus (C04) (5th century)]
Tου δε IY γεννηθεντος εν βηθλεεμ της ιουδαιας εν ημεραις ηρωδου του βασιλεως· ιδου μαγοι απο ανατολων παρεγενοντο εις ιλημ

Matt 2:1 [Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis (D05) (5th century)]3v|8
του δε ιηυ γεννηθεντος εν βηθλεεμ της ϊουδαιας εν ημεραις ηρωδους του βασιλεως ειδου μαγοι απο ανατολων παρεγενοντο εις ϊεροσολυμα

Matt 2:1 [Codex Basilensis (E07) (8th century)]5r-5v
Του δε IY γεννηθεντος εν βηθλεὲμʹ της ϊουδαιας· εν ημέραις Ἠρωδου του βασιλεως ϊδου μαγοι απο ανατολων. παρεγενοντο εις ιλημ

Matt 2:1 [Codex Cyprius (Grec 63) (K017) (9th century)]15v
Τοῦ δὲ IY γεννηθέντος· ἐν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ϊουδαίας· ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως· ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ιλημ·

Matt 2:1 [Codex Regius (Grec 62) (L019) (8th century)]5vc2
Τοῦ δε IY γεννηθεντος, ἔν βιθλε(.)εμ τῆς ϊοὐδαίᾶς ἐν ἡμεραις Ἡρώδου του βασιλέως; ϊδοῠ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν, παραγένοντο εἰς ϊλημ·

(.) a letter erased = (η)?

Matt 2:1 [Codex Petropolitanus Purpureus (N022) (6th century)]
Του δε Ιησου γεννηθεντος εν βηθλεεμ της ιουδαιας εν ημεραις ηρωδου του βασιλεως ιδου μαγοι απο ανατολων παρεγενοντο εις ιερουσαλημ

Matt 2:1 [Codex Washingtonianus (W032) (5th century)]
Tου δε IY γεννηθεντος εν βηθλεεμ’ της ϊουδαιας εν ημεραις ηρωδου του βασιλεως ϊδου μαγοι απο ανατολων παρεγενοντο εις ϊερουσαλημ’

Matt 2:1 [Codex Sangallensis 48 (Δ037) (9th century)]23
Του δε IY γεννηθεντος· εν· βηθλεεμ της· ῑουδαιας· εν· ημεραις· ηρωδου· του· βασιλεως· Ιδου· μαγοι· απο ανατολων παρεγενοντο· εις· ῑερουσαλημ·

MSS: S, W, Δ

Matt 2:1 [Codex Purpureus Rossanensis (Σ042) (6th century)]24
Του δε IY γεννηθεντος εν βηθλεεμ της ιουδαιας εν ημεραις ηρωδου του βασιλεως ιδου μαγοι απο ανατολων παρεγενοντο εις ιεροσολυμα

Matt 2:1 [Codex Athous Dionysiou (Ω045) (9th century)]18c2-19c1
τοῦ δὲ IY  ΧΥ Γεννηθέντος, ἐν βηθλέεμ τῆς ἰουδαίας ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως, ἰδοῦ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ἰερουσαλὴμ·

Matt 2:1 [Uncial 071 (6th century)]
του δε IY γεννηθεντος εν βηθλεεμ της ιουδαιας εν ημεραις ηρωδου του βασιλεως ιδου μαγοι απο ανατολων παραγενοντο εις ιεροσολυμα

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 1 (12th century)]161v
τοῦ δὲ ιυ γενΝηθέντος ἐν βηθλέεμ τῆς ἰουδαίας· ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως· ἰδού μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ἱεροσόλυμα

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 2 (11th century)]3v
Τοῦ δὲ ἰ γεννηθέντος ἐν βηθλεἓμ τῆς ἰουδαίας ἐν μέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως· ἰδού μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ἱεροσόλυμα

* μέραις = correction by different hand, different ink color

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 8 (Gr. 49) (11th century)]19vc1
Τοῦ δὲ ἰ γεννηθέντος ἐν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ἰουδαίας. ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως. ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ἱεροσόλυμα

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 43 (8409) (11th century)]13r-v
τοῦ δὲ ἰυ γεννηΘέντος ἐν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ἰουδαίας. ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως· ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς λὴμ

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 44 (Add MS 4949) (12th century)]15r-v
Του δε ιυ γεννηθεντος εν βηθλεεμ της ιουδαιας· εν ημεραις ηρῳδου του βασιλεως. ιδου μαγοι απο ανατολων. παρεγενοντο εις ιλημ

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 65 (11th century)]8r
τοῦ δὲ ιυ γεννηθέντος ἐν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ἰουδαίας. ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδȣ τοῦ βασιλέως. ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν· παρεγένοντο εἰς (ηλημ)

* ȣ = ου   |   (Ηλημ) = different ink

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 72 (11th century)]6r
τοῦ δὲ ιυ γενΝηθέντος ἐν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ἰουδαίας· ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως. ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ἱλμ

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 83 (Codex Monacensis Gr. 518) (11th century)]13r-v
του δε ιυ γεννηθεντ{ος} Εν βηθλεεμ της ιουδαιας· εν ημεραις ηρωδου του βασιλεως, ιδου μαγοι απο ανατολων παρεγενοντο εις ιροσολυμα·

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 109 (1326)]27r-v
Τοῦ δὲ ἰῦ γεννηθέντος ἐν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ἰουδαίας ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασϊλέως. ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ἱλημ

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 113 (11th century)]28r
Τοῦ δὲ ἰῦ γεννηθέντ{ος} ἐν βηθλεὲμ τ{ῆς} ἰουδαίας· ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασϊλέως· ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ἱεροσόλυμα

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 116 (12th century)]16v-17r
Τοῦ δὲ ἰ γεννηθέντος ἐν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ἰουδαίας. ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως. ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ἱεροσόλυμα,

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 182 (12th century)]2v
τοῦ δὲ Ϊ γεννηθέντος ἐν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ΐȣδαίας. ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρῴδου τοῦ βασϊλέως. ΐδού μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶ- παρεγένοντο εἰς ῗεροσόλυμα·

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 200 (11th century)]26c2-27c1
τȣ Δὲ ἰυ γεννηθέντος ἐν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ἰουδαίας. ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως ἰδού μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ἱεροσόλυμα

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 201 (11th century)]11vc2
Του δε ιυ γεννηθεντος εν βηθλεεμ της ιουδαιας· εν ημεραις ηρωδου του βασιλεως ιδου μαγοι απο ανατολων, παρεγενοντο εις ῐεροσολϋμ·

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 272 (11th century)]6v
τοῦ δὲ ιυ γεννηθέντ{ος} ν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ἰουδαίας. ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως. ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ἱλὴμ

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 276 (Gr. 81) (1092)]15v
Τοῦ δὲ ἰυ γεννηθέντος ἐν βηθλεὲμ τ{ῆς} ἰουδαίας. ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως. ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν …

*  {ῆς} = Greek ligature   |   … = f16r begins with Matt 4:6

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 438 (12th century)]15v
τοῦ δὲ ἰ γεννηθ{έν}τος ἐν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ἰȣΔαίας. ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως, ἰδού μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν. παρεγένοντο εἰς ἱεροσόλυμα

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 439 (1159)]10vc1-2
τοῦ δὲ ἰῦ Γεννηθέντος ἐν βηθλέεμ τῆς ἰουδαίας. ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως, ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς λημ’

Matt 2:1 [Miniscule 449 (13th century)]6v
Τοῦ δὲ ἰ γεννηθέντ{ος} ἐν βηθλεὲμ Τῆς ΐουδαίας· ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασϊλέως· ΐδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ῒεροσόλυμα,

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 476 (11th century)]9r
Τοῦ δὲ ιυ γεννηθέντος ἐν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ἰουδαίας· ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ἱλημ

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 478 (10th century)]9v-10r
Τοῦ δὲ ιυ γεννηθέντος ἐν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ϊουδαίας· ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως. ῒδού μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ϊλημ

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 490 (11th century)]9vc1
τοῦ Δὲ ἰῦ γεννηθέντος ἐν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ΐουδαί{ας} ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως· ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ἱεροσόλυμα·

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 500 (13th century)]10v
τοῦ δὲ ἰ Γεννηθέντος ἐν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ἰουδαίας· ἐν ὴμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασϊλέως· ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς λὴμ

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 504 (1033)]13r
τοῦ δὲ ἰυ Γεννηθέντος ἐν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ἰουδαίας· ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως· ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένονΤο εἰς ἱλμ

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 543 (12th century)]2ac1
Τοῦ δὲ ἰυ γεννηθέντος ἐν βηθλέεμ τῆς ἰουδαίας ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρῴδου τοῦ βασιλέως· ἰδού μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ἱεροσόλυμα

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 560 (11th century)]31v
Τοῦ δὲ ἰῦ γεννηθέντος ἐν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ἰουδαίας ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως. ἰδού μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ἱλὴμ

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 652 (10th century)]59
Τȣ Διυ γεννηθέντος ἐν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ἰουδαίας· ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως. ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ἱλμ

ϊεροσόλυμα (in the margin to the right of ἱλμ)

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 688 (1179)]14rc2
Τοῦ δὲ ἰ γεννηθέντος ἐν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ἰουδαίας· ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως· ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ἱεροσόλυμα

Matt 2:1 [Minuscule 2561 (11th century)]12a
τοῦ δὲ ιυ γεννη{θτο}· Ἐν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ἰουδαίας· ἐν ἡμέραις ἡρῴδου τοῦ βασιλέως· ἰδού μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ἱεροσόλυμα.

Matt 2:1  [Lectionary ℓ1086 (A’ 86) (10th century)]289vc1
Τοῦ ΙΥ γεννηθεντος ἐν βηθλεὲμ τῆς ϊουδαίας, ἐν ημέραις ἡρώδου τοῦ βασιλέως, ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπο ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς ϊεροσολυμα

Matt 2:1 [Peshitta]
ܟ݁ܰܕ݂ ܕ݁ܶܝܢ ܐܶܬ݂ܺܝܠܶܕ݂ ܝܶܫܽܘܥ ܒ݁ܒ݂ܶܝܬ݂‌ܠܚܶܡ ܕ݁ܺܝܗܽܘܕ݂ܳܐ ܒ݁ܝܰܘܡܰܝ ܗܶܪܳܘܕ݂ܶܣ ܡܰܠܟ݁ܳܐ ܐܶܬ݂ܰܘ ܡܓ݂ܽܘܫܶܐ ܡܶܢ ܡܰܕ݂ܢܚܳܐ ܠܽܐܘܪܺܫܠܶܡ܂

Matt 2:1 [Old Syriac Curetonian (Codex Curetonianus Syriacus syc)]
ܘܟܕ ܐܬܝܠܕ ܝܫܘܥ ܒܝܬ ܠܚܡ ܕܝܗܘܕܐ܂ ܒܝ̈ܘܡܝ ܗܪܘܕܣ ܡܠܟܐ܂ ܘܗܐ ܡ̈ܓܘܫܐ ܐܬܘ ܡܢ ܡܕܢܚܐ ܠܐܘܪܫܠܡ܂

Matt 2:1 [Old Syriac Sinaitic (Codex Sinaiticus Syriacus sys)]
ܘܟܕ ܐܬܝܠܕ ܝܫܘܥ ܒܝܬ ܠܚܡ ܕܝܗܘܕܐ ܒܝܘܡܝ ܗܪܘܕܣ ܡܠܟܐ ܘܗܐ ܡܓܘܫܐ ܐܬܘ ܡܢ ܡܕܢܚܐ ܠܐܘܪܫܠܡ

Matt 2:1 [Old Latin (Codex Vercellensis)]
Cum ergo natus esset Iesus in Bethlem eivitate Iudaeae in diebus Herodis Regis: ecce Magi ab Oriente venerunt Hierosolyma,

Matt 2:1 [Vulgate]
cum ergo natus esset Iesus in Bethleem Iudaeae in diebus Herodis regis ecce magi ab oriente venerunt Hierosolymam

Critical Apparatus :

(1) δε : א, B, C, D, E, K, L, M1, N, S, W, Δ, Σ, Ω, 071, 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 18, 27, 33, 43, 44, 46, 57, 65, 72, 83, 109, 113, 116, 127, 157, 182, 200, 201, 230, 272, 276, 438, 439, 449, 476, 478, 490, 500, 504, 543, 556, 560, 652, 688, 699, 700, 892, 1203, 1582, 2561, 2603, Majority
(2) OMIT δε : M*, ℓ1086

(3) ιησου : א, B, C, D, E, K, L, M, N, S, W, Δ, Σ, 071, 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 18, 27, 33, 43, 44, 46, 57, 65, 72, 83, 109, 113, 116, 127, 157, 182, 200, 201, 230, 272, 276, 438, 439, 449, 476, 478, 490, 500, 504, 543, 556, 560, 652, 688, 699, 700, 892, 1203, 1582, 2561, 2603, ℓ1086, Majority
(4) ιησου χριστου : Ω

(5) ημεραις : א1, B, C, D, E, K, L, M, N, S, W, Δ, Σ, Ω, 071, 1, 2c, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 18, 27, 33, 43, 44, 46, 57, 65, 72, 83, 109, 113, 116, 127, 157, 182, 200, 201, 230, 272, 276, 438, 439, 449, 476, 478, 490, 500, 504, 543, 556, 560, 652, 688, 699, 700, 892, 1203, 1582, 2561, 2603, ℓ1086, Majority, Eusebius of Caesarea
(6) ημερες : א*
(7) ιμεραις : 2*

(8) ηρωδου : א, B, C, E, K, L, M, N, S, W, Δ, Σ, Ω, 071, 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 18, 27, 33, 43, 44, 46, 57, 65, 72, 83, 109, 113, 116, 127, 157, 182, 200, 201, 230, 272, 276, 438, 439, 449, 476, 478, 490, 500, 504, 543, 556, 560, 652, 688, 699, 892, 1203, 1582, 2561, 2603, ℓ1086, Majority, Eusebius of Caesarea
(9) ηρωδους : D

(10) ιδου : א, B, C, E, K, L, M, N, S, W, Δ, Σ, Ω, 071, 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 18, 27, 33, 43, 44, 46, 57, 65, 72, 83, 109, 113, 116, 127, 157, 182, 200, 201, 230, 272, 276, 438, 439, 449, 476, 478, 490, 500, 504, 543, 556, 560, 652, 688, 699, 700, 892, 1203, 1582, 2561, 2603, ℓ1086, Majority, Eusebius of Caesarea
(11) ειδου : D

(12) παρεγενοντο : א, B, C, D, E, K, M, N, S, W, Δ, Σ, Ω, 1, 2c, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 18, 27, 33, 43, 44, 46, 57, 65, 72, 83, 109, 113, 116, 127, 157, 182, 200, 201, 230, 272, 438, 439, 449, 476, 478, 490, 500, 504, 543, 556, 560, 652, 688, 699, 700, 892, 1203, 1582, 2561, 2603, ℓ1086, Majority, Eusebius of Caesarea
(13) παραγενοντο : L, 071

(14) ιεροσολυμα : א, B, D, M, Σ, 071, 1, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 18, 33, 46, 57, 113, 116, 127, 182, 200, 438, 449, 490, 543, 556, 688, 652c, 892, 1203, 1582, 2561, 2603, ℓ1086, Majority, Eusebius of Caesarea
(15) ιερουσαλημ : C, E, K, L, N, S, W, Δ, Ω, 27, 43, 44, 72, 109, 230, 272, 439, 476, 478, 500, 504, 560, 652*, 699¿, 700, Eusebius of Caesarea
(16) ιεροσολημ : 157*
(17) ιεροσολημα : 157c
(18) ιεροσολυμ : 201
(19) ιροσολυμα : 83
(20) ηρουσαλημ : 65?

 

 

Α : Περὶ τῶν μάγων

K (f15v), 8 (f19vc1), 65 (f8r), 230 (f17rc2), 500 (f10v), 688 (f14rc2), 699 (f2r)

Ε / Ζ :

476 (f9r), 478 (f9v-10r), 1203 (f8v)

 

Tischendorf 2:1

Tischendorf Mt 2:1

 

 Early Church Fathers

(1) Eusebius of Caesarea (Demonstratio Evangelica, p329, 31, Eusebius Werke, Ivar A. Heikel)
τοῦ δὲ Ἰησοῦ γεννηθέντος ἐν Βηθλέεμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρῴδου τοῦ βασιλέως, ἰδοὺ μάγοι παρεγένοντο ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν εἰς Ἱερουσαλὴμ

(1) Eusebius of Caesarea (Demonstratio Evangelica, p351, 25, Eusebius Werke, Ivar A. Heikel)
τοῦ δὲ Ἰησοῦ γεννηθέντος ἐν Βηθλέεμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρῴδου τοῦ βασιλέως

(2)  Eusebius of Caesarea (Demonstratio Evangelica, p360, 29, Eusebius Werke, Ivar A. Heikel)
τοῦ δὲ Ἰησοῦ γεννηθέντος ἐν Βηθλέεμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρῴδου τοῦ βασιλέως, ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα

(3) Eusebius of Caesarea (Demonstratio Evangelica, p404, 10, Eusebius Werke, Ivar A. Heikel)
τοῦ δὲ Ἰησοῦ γεννηθέντος ἐν Βηθλέεμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας, ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρῴδου τοῦ βασιλέως, ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς Ἱερουσαλὴμ

 

 

A Textual Commentary On Matthew 2:1

(a) Βηθλέεμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας – According to Justin Martyr, Bethlehem was distant 35 stadia from Jerusalem (Apol. I. 34. p.65). DuTillet has בעיר יהודה (Bethlehem, a city of Judah). The town was originally called Ephrath (Gen 35:19, Gen 48:7). As there were two Bethlehems, one in the Tribe of Judah, the other in the Tribe of Zebulun (Jos 19:15, Jdg 12:8), Matthew added τῆς Ἰουδαίας to distinguish the city from Bethlehem of Zebulun, a town near Nazareth referred to as Beth Lehem Zoria in the Jerusalem Talmud as it was part of the kingdom of Tyre.

(b) ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρῴδου τοῦ βασιλέως – The father of Herod was Antipater, an Idumaean; his mother was an Arabian.

(c) μάγοι – This is a word of Babylonian or Persian origin (maguš). But according to Thayer’s Lexicon, the word is of Indo-Germanic origin. Were the Magi Persians? According to Justin Martyr, the Magi were from Arabia.

For at the time of His birth, Magi who came from Arabia worshipped Him, coming first to Herod, who then was sovereign in your land, and whom the Scripture calls king of Assyria on account of his ungodly and sinful character. (Dialogue with Trypho, Chapter 77)

The name is given by the Babylonians, Medes, and Persians, to the wise men, teachers, priests, physicians, astrologers, seers, interpreters of dreams, augurs, soothsayers, sorcerers, etc. According to Herodotus, the Magi were one of the tribes of the Medes. They were interpreters of dreams. (Book 1, 101, 107)

Δηιόκης μέν νυν τὸ Μηδικὸν ἔθνος συνέστρεψε μοῦνον καὶ τοῦτον ἦρξε· ἔστι δὲ Μήδων τοσάδε γένεα, Βοῦσαι Παρητακηνοὶ Στρούχατες Ἀριζαντοὶ Βούδιοι Μάγοι. γένεα μὲν δὴ Μήδων ἐστὶ τοσάδε. (History of Herodotus, Book 1, 101)

ὑπερθέμενος δὲ τῶν Μάγων τοῖσι ὀνειροπόλοισι τὸ ἐνύπνιον, ἐφοβήθη παρ᾽ αὐτῶν αὐτὰ ἕκαστα μαθών. (History of Herodotus, Book 1, 107)

(d) μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο – According to Edward Burton, ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν may be coupled either with μάγοι (eastern Magi) or with παρεγένοντο (came from the east). Justin Martyr, Tertullian, and Epiphanius say they came from Arabia, but Clement of Alexandria and Athanasius, from Persia. The belief that there were three Wise Men called Melchior, Gaspar, and Balthasar probably originated from the offerings in Matt 2:11; and they may have been called kings, from Psalm 72:10 (71:10) :

βασιλεῖς θαρσις καὶ αἱ νῆσοι δῶρα προσοίσουσιν βασιλεῖς ἀράβων καὶ σαβα δῶρα προσάξουσιν

The kings of Tharsis, and the isles, shall bring presents: the kings of the Arabians and Saba shall offer gifts.

(e) Ιεροσολυμα or Ιερουσαλημ? Ιερουσαλημ is the Hebrew form of the name and is used in Luke.

(f) In a fragment of the ecclesiastical history composed by HEGESIPPUS, a converted Jew, who flourished A.D. 173, which is preserved by Eusebius², there is an account of the emperor Domitian’s inquiry after the posterity of David, two of whom were brought before him : “for,” adds the bistorian, “he too was afraid of the coming of Christ, as well as Herod.” In this passage there is an explicit reference to the second chapter of Matthew, which plainly shows that this portion of bis Gospel was received by this Hebrew Christian, who used our Greek Gospel. Or, if he used only the Hebrew edition of St. Matthew’s Gospel, it is equally certain that the historical fact alluded to must have been extant in it in the time of Hegesippus.

² Eccl. Hist. lib. iii. c. 19, 20. See the original passage in Dr. Lardner’s Works, 8vo. vol. ii. pp. 142, 143. ; 4to . vol. i. pp. 356, 357.

(Thomas Hartwell Horne, An Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, vol. 4, p. 423)

(g) The external objections to the genuineness of these chapters are of no weight . The chief argument is that they are not contained in the Gospel according to the Hebrews as used by the Jewish Christians, and hence it has been inferred that they formed no part of the original Hebrew Gospel of Matthew. Epiphanius, who appears to have regarded the Gospel according to the Hebrews, or as he calls it, the Gospel of the Ebionites, as the same as the original Aramaic Gospel of Matthew, though in an incomplete, adulterated, and mutilated form, states that it commenced with the baptism of John : “The beginning of their Gospel was this : It came to pass in the days of Herod, the king of Judæa, that John came baptizing with the baptism of repentance in the river of Jordan” (Matt. iii. 1-7).¹ We have already considered the relation of this Gospel to the Gospel of Matthew. It is not now in existence, so that we cannot verify this statement. But as the majority of Hebrew Christians were Ebionites who called in question the divinity of Christ, it is highly probable that from dogmatic motives they did reject the first two chapters of Matthew, which taught the miraculous conception. Tatian also, in his Diatessaron, omitted the genealogy. But this is no serious objection to the genuineness of these two chapters, since Tatian, although he omitted the genealogy of our Lord as not being essential to his harmony, did not omit the narrative of the birth of Christ, —the miraculous conception, the visit of the Magi, the appearance of the star, and the slaughter of the infants of Bethlehem.

¹ Hær. xxx. 13.

(Paton James Gloag, Introduction to the Synoptic Gospels, p. 130)

(h) The external testimony in favour of the passage is so strong and convincing, that we do not see how it can be set aside by any objections of a subjective or internal nature. The passage is contained in all Greek manuscripts and in all the ancient versions of the Gospels. It is frequently alluded to and quoted by the early Fathers. Thus, in the Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians (A.D. 115), there is an allusion to the star. “How was He manifested to the world? A star shone forth in the heavens above all the other stars, the light of which was inexpressible, while its novelty struck men with astonishment.”¹  Justin Martyr (A.D. 180) mentions all the incidents contained in the narrative — the visit of the Magi, the flight into Egypt, and the massacre of the infants. “Now this King Herod, at the time when the Magi came to him from Arabia, and said that they knew from a star which appeared in the heavens that a king had been born in your country, and that they had come to worship Him, learned from the elders of your people that it was written regarding Bethlehem in the prophet : ‘And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, art by no means least among the princes of Judah : for out of thee shall go forth the leader who shall feed my people. Accordingly the Magi from Arabia came to Bethlehem and worshipped the child, and presented Him with gifts, gold, and frankincense, and myrrh ; but returned not to Herod, being warned in a revelation, after worshipping the child in Bethlehem . . . . So Herod , when the Magi from Arabia did not return to him, as he had asked them to do, but departed by another way to their own country, according to the commands laid on them ; and when Joseph, with Mary and the child, had gone into Egypt, as he did not know the child whom the Magi’ had gone to worship, ordered the whole of the children then in Bethlehem to b massacred. ”²  As we have already stated , the whole passage, with the exception of the genealogy, is contained in the Diatessaron of Tatian (A.D. 160). There are frequent references to it in the writings of Irenæus (A.D. 180) . Thus he refers to the genealogy of our Lord as recorded by Matthew : “Matthew relates His generation as a man : The birth of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham : and also, The birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise,”³  And he mentions the visit of the Magi and the appearance of the star : “Matthew says that the Magi, coming from the East, exclaimed : We have seen His star in the East, and are come to worship Him.”⁴ It is needless to pursue the references to the passage further. There is no doubt that it constituted an original portion of the Greek Gospel of Matthew. To affirm, with Norton, that it formed no part of the original Hebrew, but was an insertion into our Greek Gospel by the translator, granting the existence of a Hebrew original, —is a mere assertion, for which the only proof is its omission in the defective Gospel according to the Hebrews. The internal evidence is in favour of the genuineness It forms an appropriate introduction to the Gospel. Thus the beginning of chap. iii. : “And in those days” (Ἐν δε ταϊς ημέραις εκείναις), is, by reason of the conjunction δε and the phrase ημέραις εκείναις, in apparent connection with what precedes. So also the statement, that Jesus leaving Nazareth, came and dwelt in Capernaum (iv. 13), presupposes the previous residence in Nazareth mentioned in the passage (ii . 23). The style and diction of the passage correspond with the rest of the Gospel. The favourite formula of Matthew, when introducing any prophetic statement : “That it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord through the prophet” (ίνα πληρωθή το ρηθέν υπό του κυρίου δια του προφήτου), occurs, either in full or in an abbreviated form , five times (i. 22, ii. 5, 15 , 17, 23). The Messianic title used by Matthew, the son of David (υιος Δαυειδ), occurs twice (i. 1, 20) . . The favourite term, λεγόμενος, used in announcing the meaning of an epithet applied to the Messiah (Ιησούς ο λεγόμενος Χριστός , 1. 16), or in stating names and surnames ( είς πόλιν λεγομένην Ναζαρετ, ii . 23), is twice employed. The peculiar use of ρηθείς, ρηθέν, occurs four times , whilst of the other Synoptists only Mark has το ρηθεν (Mark xiii. 14).⁵ Of course it may be answered, that these similarities of diction are attributable to the translator in rendering the Hebrew original into Greek.⁶

¹ Ignatius, Ep. ad Ephes. ch. xix.
² Dial. c. Tryph. ch. lxxviii.
³ Irenæus, Contra Hær. ii. 11. 8.
⁴ Ibid. iii . 9. 2
⁵ See Guerick , Isagogik, pp . 240 , 241.

⁶ So Meyer : “The unity of the Greek style and expression is to be explained from the unity of the translator.”

(Paton James Gloag, Introduction to the Synoptic Gospels, pp. 131-133)

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